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The Night Of Terror In Constantinople
Chaldean
post 01/07/06 10:19 PM
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Under the terms of the agreement regarding the exchange of populations in the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne, the Greek population of Constantinople-a
thriving community-and the muslim community residing in Western Thrace were exempted from the exchange process.

In the beginning of the 20th century there were 300,000 Greeks residing in Constantinople.

They had managed to survive there despite centuries of oppression and
persecution under the Ottoman yoke. But the Turks were determined to expel all Greeks from their ancient home using all available means. Thus, the Turks systematically used the following measures in order to accomplish their objective :

a) In May 1941, large numbers of young men ranging in age from 18-38. were conscripted into the Turkish army from the Greek and Armenian communities. The Turkish intention was to exterminate these young men through the well-known method of <<forced-labour battalions>>. If this extermination plan was not successful it was due to protests from the Western allies and the defeat of the Germans in Stalingrad in December 1942. Seeing the tides of war shifting, the Turkish authorities permitted the discharge of these soldiers.

B) On 11 Noverriber 1942, the Turkish government passed a law regarding
taxation of property of non-muslims, known as the VA RLIK VE RGISI. Through this !aw non-muslim citiizens had to submit, without the right to appeal, to the discretion and arbitrary judgment of the tax clerks. The tax clerks, in turn, were instructed to appraise property at amounts many times over the actual value of each property. Then, if the individual concerned was unable to make payments of the enormous tax share (quota), the property was seized and the unfortunate owners were exiled to ACKALE, in Anatolia.

As a result (of the use) of these harsh and inhuman measures, by 1955 only 25,000 people were left, rather than the 450,000 that should have been their number given a normal rate of growth in 35 years.

On the night of the 6th September 1955, and using the Cyprus situation as a pretext, the Turks dealt the coupdegrace to the remaining inhabitants.
The whole story of this pogrom is as follows :

On Saturday the 3rd of September, 1955, the wife of the Turkish Consul in
Thessaloniki asked for, and received, from a photographer in Thessaloniki
supposedly for a keep-sake a series of photographs and films of the Turkish Consulate and the neighboring home where Kemal Ataturk was born. The very next day she and her family left for Turkey.

At ten past midnight on the 6th of September,1955, in the garden of the
Consulate, between the two buildings, dynamite exploded resulting in broken windows in both buildings. The Greek authorities rushed immediately to the scene. They established that two more explosive devices had been positioned in the Consulate yard and that within the building there was only one Turkish guard. In the investigation that followed it was determined that the explosives were placed there by the guard and his accomplice, a Turkish student at the Law School of the University of Thessaloniki, Oktai Egin Faik, who had brought the dynamite from Turkey a few days earlier.

On the 6th of September, Turkish newspapers using forged versions of the photos of the Turkish consul's wife and even before the explosion took place in Greece, depicted Kemal's birthplace as totally destroyed. By the evening, newspapers all over Turkey knew of the alleged destruction of Kemal's home setting off waves of anger among the Turkish populace.

The Turkish authorities then transported large groups of people in trains and military vehicles from Anatolia to Constantinople.

The attack by the angry mobs began at 5 : 50 P.M on the 6th of September 1955 and ended at 02 : 00 A.M on the 7th of September 1955. The police calmly assisted and even guided the mobs, in their relentless path of destruction.

At 12:20 A.M on the 7th of September 1955 martial law was finally declared, at 2:00 A.M curfew began and at 2:30 A.M the authorities had restored a semblance of order.

Screaming slogans <<Today your property, tomorrow your lives>> the mobs had perpetrated terrible crimes. Those who guided them knew that by terrorizing the last Greek residents of Constantinople they would compel them to desert their homeland, once and for all. Simultaneously by destroying monuments which were proof of the glorious Greek past of Constantinople, they would eradicate even future reminders of the Greek presence.

The results of the vandalisms were :

The Theological School of Halki, the Marasleios School, The Monestary of Valoukli, the Zappeio School for Girls and many other sites, suffered great damage.

of the 83 Greek Orthodox churches in the <<Polis>> 59 were burned and most others suffered serious damage to the icons and ancient paintings of great value. The tombs of Patriarchs were destroyed, Christian cemeteries and ossuaries were defiled ;
3,000 homes were looted and destroyed ;
4348 Greek stores were looted and destroyed ;
200 Greek women were raped ;
hundreds of Greeks were ill-treated or tortured, such as the old Bishop of
Derkon Iakovos; the metropolitan of Ilioupolis Yennadios, whose beard was cut off and who was then dragged through the streets so that he would die shortly thereafter from ill-treatment; and Bishop Pamphilou Yennadios that was thrown into the burned ruins of Valoukli; 15 Greeks were murdered and among them a 90 year old monk at the Valoukli Monastery, Chrys. Mantas, who was burned alive. Many others in the monastery were seriously wounded.

After the pogrom a great portion of the Greek population left Constantinople to save their lives.

On the 20th of September,1975, in a special 35 page Survey section of the influential English magazine, The Economist, it was written : <<Turkish
charges that the Moslem population in Western Thrace is harried by the Greek authorities are gross exaggerations. In 1923 there were 300,000 Greeks living in Constantinople and 110,000 Turks living in Thrace. Today, there are 15,000 Greeks living in Istanbul and 120,000 Turks in Thrace. The Greeks ask, with some justification, which country has been putting the pressure on which minority>>. (Survey-15).



It is important for us to realize that today,1999, only 1,500 Greeks still
remain in Constantinople.



In the pages to follow you will find irrefutable photographic evidence of a
typical sample of Turkish cruelty, which managed to destroy the Hellenic
population of Constantinople.
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Chaldean
post 01/07/06 10:22 PM
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TURKISH PROGRAM AGAINST THE GREEK POPULATION OF CONSTANTINOPLE 6-7 SEPTEMBER 1955
http://chicago.agrino.org/turkish_pogrom_a..._the_greeks.htm
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The events of September” or "Septemvriana" as they are known to the ethnic Greek inhabitants of Constantinople (Istanbul) to describe the pogrom that took place in that city fifty years ago on the 6-7 September 1955. On that horrific night, at least as intense as the Kristallnacht of 1938 in NAZI Germany, a Turkish Government orchestrated pogrom set out to physically destroy everything Greek in Constantinople. Wave after wave of frenzied mobs systematically destroyed:

4,500 Greek homes,
3,500 shops and businesses,
90 churches and monasteries,
36 schools and
3 cemeteries.

Two priests were burnt alive,
14 other Greeks killed,
hundreds of Greek women raped and
many thousands of Greeks beaten.

The dead were not spared –
corpses were disinterred and
knifed and others defecated upon.

The graves of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchs were defiled.

The churches, in particular, suffered massive destruction, 70 being utterly destroyed and irreplaceable relics of enormous value reduced to rubble. However, the destruction of churches could not alone satisfy the fanaticised and frenzied mobs.

The American Ambassador spoke about “the disgusting and beastly manner in which religious sanctuaries were desecrated.”

The desecration involved
defecation on the altars,
urination in the communion cups,
the piercing and removing of the eyes of Christ from all icons,
placing of priests’ sacred clothes on donkeys and
the use of looted metallic church implements on garbage collectors.

The World Council of Churches at that time estimated the damage to churches alone exceeded $150 million dollars.

It should be noted that the Turkish authorities transported large groups of people in trains and military vehicles from Anatolia to Constantinople.

The attacks by the mob began at 5.50pm on 6th September and ended at 2am on 7 September with the imposition of martial law.

However, during this 8 hours of frenzy the police assisted and guided the mobs in their relentless path of destruction in a very well organised pogrom.

The 100,000 rioters came well equipped with lists of Greek addresses to target scattered through 45 square kilometres; Armenian and Jewish property was also attacked in the frenzy.

According to Spiros Vryonis, who has recently published the definitive work on the subject – “The Mechanism of Catastrophe” – there were three systematic waves of destroyers. “

The first wave destroyed metal doors and barriers to all churches, house and businesses. They smashed all obstacles to entry.

The second wave commenced pilfering and the pillaging. They came with trucks so as to systematically loot and carry off their booty. But the basic job of the second wave was to begin the destruction of the houses, the apartments, the church, the stores and then to move on, just as the first wave moved on very quickly.

The third came some time later to finish off the marauding.” The pilfering or destruction of Greek businesses was so great that it produced a food shortage in Constantinople. The price of eggs rose 6 times and as most bakeries were utterly destroyed people had to wait in line for a piece of bread. People had nothing to eat and nowhere to sleep. (Houses were looted, and then destroyed by pouring gasoline).

Vryonis notes that the 100,000 rioters (students, labour unionists and peasants) came well equipped with pickaxes, shovels, wooden timbers to serve as battering rams, acetylene torches, gasoline, dynamite and large trucks full of stones. How could a spontaneous eruption occur when security people, secret police, municipal police, and the armed services were everywhere?

This was Turkey’s final solution just on 500 years after the conquest of the city that had been Byzantium’s capital for 1100 years. The Ottoman empire had been a multinational one until its defeat in World War I. The Young Turks, however, developed a fervent nationalism of “Turkey for the Turks” and its implementation began with the Armenian and Pontian genocides in 1915. After the Greek defeat in the Greco-Turkish War of 1919-1922, the Treaty of Lausanne (1923) provided for a massive exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey. The Greeks of Constantinople, Imbros and Tenedos (two islands near the Dardanelles) and the Moslems on the Greek side of the border with Turkey in Thrace were excepted from this exchange.

According to Turkish statistics in 1924 the Greek population of Constantinople amounted to 279,788 and there was a Greek population of 8,200 on the islands of Imbros and Tenedos. Imbros, in fact, had no Turkish inhabitants at all. The Moslems of Western Thrace (not ethnically homogeneous being made up of Turks, Pomaks [Bulgarian speaking Thracians] and Gypsies) numbered 86,793 persons. The Greek population today in Constantinople numbers 2000, in Imbros 250 and in Tenedos 50 whilst the Moslem population in Greece numbers 120,000. Both populations were to be protected by stringent conditions in the Treaty of Lausanne. Greece respected and obeyed the Treaty and as a result the Moslems have increased in numbers and the Greek state maintains their mosques and schools. What has Turkey done? From day one it has passed laws in blatant disregard of the Treaty of Lausanne, orchestrated the 1955 pogrom which led to the massive emigration of ethnic Greeks from Turkey and is now systematically confiscating the property owned by the Ecumenical Patriarchate – the last vestige of 1700 years presence of the seat of the Greek Orthodox Church.

For the record it should be stated that Turkey never implemented Article 14 of the Treaty of Lausanne which provided that the islands of Imbros and Tenedos were to enjoy a special administration composed of local elements. Indeed, in 1927 by law 1151 the Greek schools on Imbros and Tenedos were abolished. In 1964 the Greek inhabitants of Imbros were notified that they must “voluntarily” sell their land to the Turkish State otherwise it would be expropriated. The authorities then set up an open prison on the island forcing the majority of the Greek inhabitants to emigrate. In 1967 an Imbros special court ordered the Greeks to return to the Turkish State the pittances they had received for the confiscation of their land.

In 1934 Law 2596 forbade Greek clergymen to wear clerical attire outside the Church.

In 1937 Moslem deputy directors were appointed to the Greek schools. Since then regulations have been adopted prohibiting any reference to modern Greek history or culture and the removal of all notices in the Greek language in the schools. No funds whatsoever are provided in the Turkish budget for minority education.

In 1941 whilst Greece was fighting Nazism Turkey ( a dubious neutral) mobilised all Greeks between 18 and 45 years of age and deported them to special camps from which many never returned.

In 1942 the “Varlik Vergisi” law imposed a wealth tax on property. The provisions of the law were enforced with exceptional zeal only against the non-Moslem minorities at confiscatory rates. Eg Greeks were taxed at 156 percent of annual income and Moslem Turks at 4.96 percent. The Varlik effectively deprived the community of its wealth with massive numbers of property and businesses being transferred to Moslem hands.

In 1949 all Greek religious, charitable and community foundations were stripped of their autonomy and placed under the supervision of the General Directorate for Religious Property (Vakuf).

In 1963 the Turkish Council of State determined that non-moslem foundations could not acquire real estate in excess of that belonging to them in 1926.

In 1964 the Turkish Authorities closed the Patriarchal printing house and forbade the further printing of the two church religious journals. By secret decision (6/3801) taken by the Turkish Ministerial Council on 2/11/64 all real property belonging to Greeks was attached and Greeks were barred from legal transactions involving the transfer of property. In the same year the operation of the Greek Orphanage at Pringipos was prohibited and the building forcibly taken over by the Turkish Authorities, literally throwing 117 boys and 46 girls in the street. The building in now the subject of litigation between the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the Turkish State. In the same year 15,000 Greeks were deported on a few hours notice with all their possessions confiscated except one suitcase of clothing. (The recent film a “Touch of Spice” covers this event).

In 1967 (Law 903/67) imposed an inspection tax of 5% on the income of minority foundations. This law also prohibited the establishment of new minority foundations and the repair or restoration of real estate belonging to minority foundations.

In 1970 the Ministry of Education prohibited prayers in minority schools. In the same year a new property tax of 6% was imposed on the real estate of minority foundations.

In 1971, the Theological School of Halki (Orthodoxy’s most eminent seminary) was closed thereby depriving the Patriarchate of the ability to educate its clergy and future successors to the Patriarchal Throne. Despite calls from the US, EU and Australia Turkey refuses to re-open the College.

In 1983 Christian religious and charitable property was excepted from Law 2912/83. This law cancelled old lease agreements and permitted property owners to charge rents at current market values. By preventing Christians from benefiting from this law, the Turkish Authorities ensured their financial strangulation.

There has not been a year in which a Greek Church has not been expropriated or demolished to build new roads or a cemetery not desecrated or a church damaged or burned or a school closed or demolished or property expropriated without compensation; or when compensation has been ordered the funds blocked. Not one Greek has been employed in the public service in the last 50 years.

It is apparent from this review that there has been a systematic policy on the part of Turkey to eliminate every trace of the Greek and Christian ( the Armenians & other Christians are also subject to the discriminatory laws) presence from Turkey – to complete what the Young Turks and Kemal conceptualised – a Turkey for the Turks only. Not one Christian (whether Greek or Armenian) is to remain, not one Christian Church is to operate (they will still be opened for the tourist revenue), no property of any kind will remain in Christian hands. Despite pressure from the EU Turkey is in the final throes of confiscating Christian property and completing its master plan.

Seen in the above context the Septemvriana did not erupt so suddenly and violently in order to destroy an entire community. Cyprus, was merely the ostensible cause, the events in Cyprus provided the pretext to fanaticise the mobs. It was the excuse that Turkey was waiting for just as the coup in 1974 was the excuse Turkey needed to invade Cyprus to implement its long awaited plan. The Greek Cypriots campaign against Britain in 1955 was used to turn the Turkish public against the Greeks of Constantinople and thus to eliminate them forever.

At the trial of Prime Minister Menderes in 1960 it was revealed that he and Foreign Minister Fatin Rustu planned and mapped out the programme of terror.

Fifty years later we remember with great sadness the heinous events of 6-7 September 1955 which has led to the almost extinction of the Greek presence in Constantinople. No words can convey the reign of terror that the Greeks lived through.

The Septemvriana are yet another black page in Turkish history, along with the genocides against the Armenians, Pontians and Assyrians for which Turkey has never been held accountable. Sadly, Turkey’s complete disregard of international law and contempt for universally accepted human values has been condoned by the West for geopolitical reasons.

Even sadder, the situation in Cyprus is worse now than in 1955. However, the great irony may be that Cyprus could be the sting in the scorpion’s tail for Turkey. Exactly fifty years after the Septemvriana it may be Cyprus that will block Turkey’s road to Europe – divine retribution or nemesis?


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chase
post 01/15/06 05:24 PM
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chaldean if I might continue:
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Turks working hard at demolishing the Greek Community - 1955
The Dhimmi Tax went bye-bye at the same time which effected their economy BIG time for many years.
They never really recovered from it!

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The Turks attacking the Greeks and their property while
shouting: "Today your property. Tomorrow your lives!"

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The rampant destruction by the Turks continued from the evening
of September 6th into the morning of September 7th, 1955

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Besides the destruction, even worse, hundreds of Hellenes were tortured, raped and murdered.
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Celebrations mixed with looting by the Turks against the Hellenes
who'd lived there for thousands of years.

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The pillaging continues all through the night under the watchful
eye of Turkish Officials against the defenceless Greeks.

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And they continue to celebrate after their night of carnage, robbing, rapes, murders, and arson.
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The Turkish Flag is at the ready to hang over the Greek Community they had just destroyed.
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The looting and hate continued. The same hate that murdered
millions of Greeks, Armenians, and Assyrians.

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Turkish soldiers continue the plunder the next morning.
[img]http://www.hellenicgenocide.org/quotes/he-cons-turk-car-celebr.jpg[/img]
Turkish soldiers displaying their happiness as was their tradition at
the destruction of Christians.

[img]http://www.hellenicgenocide.org/quotes/he-cons-destr-church-agkon-el-yps3.jpg[/img]
Churches were pillaged, burned and desecrated. Schools and rectories destroyed. The Greeks of Constantinople were no more. A "Turkey for the Turks" was born through the ethnic cleansing and genocide of millions of Christians.

Constantinople: Human Cost

THE TOTAL ELIMINATION OF CHRISTIANS.

"The events of 1955 were the barbaric means with which the Turkish government aimed for the elimination and Ethnic Cleansing of the Hellenic community in Turkey.

The cost to the community was momentous. Out of the half million Hellenes that lived in Constantinople in the 1920's, only some 3,000 mostly senior citizens exist today.

The Ethnic Cleansing was accomplished by gradual political prosecution, as well as pure mindless violence.

On September 6th and 7th 1955, the goal of the Turkish state became ever more evident. These are just a few of the horrors the Hellenes of the city lived through:

Destroyed Homes 2,600
Destroyed Businesses 4,340
Destroyed Hotels 110
Destroyed Pharmacies 27
Churches Burnt to Ground 38
Churches Destroyed 35
Destroyed Newspapers 3
Destroyed Athletic Organizations 5

The above does not include the hundreds of murders, nor the more than 200 rapes. The extent of the animal barbarism of the Turks does not even end there. With a crazed passion, they set to destroy everything that was Hellenic. Tombs and thousand year-old temples and monuments were included on their list of destruction.

The Turkish barbarism is still alive today, and growing ever larger like a malevolent tumor. The barbarism against the Hellenes in 1955 was not an isolated event. Genocide's and massacres of entire populations have been practiced by the Turks in the entirety of this century.

The bitter taste of Turkish barbarism has been the experience of Armenians, Assyrians, Alewis, Hellenes of Asia Minor, Hellenes of Constantinople, Hellenes of Cyprus, Hellenes of Imbros and Tenedos, Pontian Hellenes, Kurds, and a large number of minorities, all within this, the 20th century.

THE ETHNIC CLEANSING OF CHRISTIANS CONTINUED:

50 Years Ago this evening - September 6th, 1955 - September 7th 1955"
http://www.middleeastinfo.org/forum/viewto...inople&start=20
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chase
post 01/15/06 05:34 PM
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Turkish soldiers displaying their happiness as was their tradition at
the destruction of Christians.


Churches were pillaged, burned and desecrated. Schools and rectories destroyed. The Greeks of Constantinople were no more.

A "Turkey for the Turks" was born through the ethnic cleansing and genocide of millions of Christians.




Turkey Pogrom Against their indigenous minorities:

Krystallnacht in Constantinople

By Speros Vryonis Jr.

Most Greek Americans and most Americans generally are unaware of the fact that on the evening of September 6, and in the early hours of September 7, 1955, the Turkish government carried out the most destructive pogrom that had been enacted in Europe since the infamous Krystallnacht which Hitler and the Nazis inflicted upon the Jewish communities, businesses and synagogues on the eve of World War II.

Further, most are unaware that the Turkish government had unleashed the mobs on the Greek community of Istanbul, on its churches, houses, businesses, schools, and newspapers; and they are unaware that this resulted in the ultimate destruction of Turkey’s oldest historical community, about 100,000 Greek Orthodox Christians who were the heirs of Byzantium.

On September 6-7 of 1995-2005, the Greek press in Greece, and the Greek American, the Greek Canadian and the Greek Australian presses memorialized this great tragedy so that more than forty years after the events, Greeks, and humanity more generally, might not forget the victims and might recall that the forces restraining barbarians are to be kept at the ready at all times. This is an example wherein the press serves as mankind’s historical and ethical teacher. I should add that many Greeks and Greek Americans have lost their sense of history, of whence they came, of who they are, and of what they are becoming.

Is it possible today in America, where we constitute an affluent, politically powerful, and highly educated Hellenic diaspora, that we know so little about something so simple and yet so fatefully significant about the Turkish pogroms that destroyed this ancient Greek community in Constantinople in 1955? That we are unaware that on September 6,1955, the Turkish mobs and government organized and carried out the worst and most destructive pogrom in Europe since Hitler and the Nazis destroyed the synagogues and businesses of the Jewish community in Germany? What then was this Turkish pogrom inflicted on the Greek community in 1955? The chronology of the pogrom falls in a very difficult period, when the Cyprus problem had complicated the political relations of Greece, Turkey and England. The Turkish press, which was to play a crucial role in preparing the political atmosphere of the pogrom, received significant financial support from British sources. Specifically, the British gave financial assistance to two Turkish newspapers and to their owners/editors: to Hikmet Bil (editor of the newspaper Hurriyet and leader of the political organization Kibris Turktur— Cyprus is Turkish), and Ahmet Emin Yalmas, owner of the older Istanbul paper Vatan. Trips by these two journalists to London had become prominent in 1954-55.

In 1952, the Turkish government had mobilized two large student organizations. By July 1955, the Turkish press and these organizations activated intense pogroms and demonstrations aimed at the defenseless Greek minority in Istanbul. The tripartite discussions, among Greece, Turkey and England, commenced in London in August of 1955. On the 27th of that month, the Turkish press condemned the Patriarch, ostensibly for collecting funds for the Greek Cypriot movement for Enosis with Greece. Three days later, on August 30, the anniversary of the day when the Kemalist forces smashed the Greek line in western Asia Minor, the Turkish press launched a particularly vile attack on the Patriarch.

Previously, on the 27th, the Istanbul newspapers published false rumors that the Greeks of Cyprus were planning mass genocide of the Turkish Cypriots. Finally, on September 5, one day prior to the pogrom, Turkish student organizations asked permission from the authorities to stage political demonstrations in Istanbul regarding Cyprus, to be staged on September 13. Also on September 5, the Turkish prime minister’s executive council, which included the minister of the interior in charge of security, the governor of Istanbul, and the chief of police, among others, met to discuss the petition and the situation more generally. It should be noted that prior to the tripartite meetings in London, it is generally accepted that the British government asked that the Turks stage a public demonstration on Cyprus, inasmuch as this would strengthen the Anglo-Turkish position against that of the Greeks during the tripartite meetings.

The Explosion of the Bomb in the Turkish Consular Complex as the Ostensible Cause of the “Spontaneous” Riots On the 6th of September, the Turkish press and other media announced the explosion of a bomb in the Turkish consular complex in Thessaloniki, within which is located the ancestral house of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. This news was announced quickly and simultaneously throughout Turkey, and the prearranged plan of the pogrom was applied and put into action, rhythmically, by its organizers, who were in effect the Turkish state. As the examination by the Greek police of Thessaloniki demonstrated soon after the explosion, the bomb was not thrown into the compound from outside the walled compound, but was placed on the grounds by an individual from inside the compound; a conclusion arrived at after a police examination of the actual form of the explosion, evidenced by the directions of the damage. This conclusion is confirmed by other independent evidence. The damage inflicted by the bomb on buildings inside the walled compound of the Turkish consulate was purportedly revealed in the photographic evidence published by the Istanbul Express, which went to press in Istanbul on the same afternoon of the day of the explosion. How was it possible to bring the photographs from Thessaloniki to Istanbul, develop them and publish them on the same afternoon, in a day and age when there were no airplane flights between Thessaloniki and Istanbul, and at a time when the bus would not have arrived in Istanbul until well into the night? The answer comes from the report of the investigation by the Thessaloniki police who reported the following incontrovertible facts:

First, the Turkish consul had left his post for Istanbul long before the event in question, leaving behind his wife to take care of “last minute details” before departing herself to join her husband. Among these “last minute details,” she was to telephone a photographic studio in Thessaloniki to hire a Greek photographer to photograph the inside of the walled complex of the Turkish consulate. A few days before the explosion of the bomb, she departed with the photographs for Istanbul. It was this photographic material which appeared in the afternoon edition of the Istanbul Express on September 6. Thus, there had been ample time to bring the photographic films to Istanbul and have them developed before the bomb exploded. However, the original photographs had been tampered with and had been altered to show purported damage to the house of Ataturk— all this before the actual explosion of the bomb. Thus, the Thessaloniki police could compare the photographic “evidence” published in the afternoon edition of the Istanbul Express on September 6 and identify it with the photos produced by the Greek photographer, and to show, on the basis of their investigation, that the Turkish version of the explosion had been falsified. Thus, the Turkish forgery had been both detected and reported.

It was recorded in a British consular report to the British Foreign Office. The Foreign Office official who received the report in London wrote on the margin of the report, “The Greeks will go to ridiculous extremes to deny their responsibility in the placing of the bomb in the Turkish consulate of Thessaloniki.” The Greek police charged a Turkish student, a Greek citizen with having placed the bomb, with the willing complicity of the Turkish doorman of the consulate. His name was Oktay Engin. When Demirel was, in recent years, reelected to power, he appointed Octay Engin as chief in charge of the affairs of the Turkish community in Greek Thrace, 37 years after the fact of the bomb. The guilt of the Turkish government and of its consular official in Thessaloniki in placing the bomb on the grounds of the consulate was further confirmed by the Turkish court martial of Yassiada in 1960-61, which condemned Prime Minister Adnan Menderes and his Foreign Minister Zorlu for the organization and execution of the Pogrom of September 1955 and for the bomb exploded in the consular compound.

The Pogrom and the Destruction of the Greek Community of Istanbul, September 6-7, 1955.

Let us now glimpse briefly at the pogrom itself, ostensibly set off by the announcement of the bomb explosion at the Turkish consulate in Thessaloniki, but which in fact had been carefully planned by the Turkish government. At this point, I quote specific paragraphs from an official Greek document with the title: “A Note of Summation of the Consul General of Constantinople, Vyron Theodoropoulos, on the anti-Greek Events of September 6, 1955.” This official report was written by a diplomat who had served as consul general during the events in question, and who was appointed by the Greek Foreign Office to make an investigation and report to the ministry The document impresses with its wealth of information as well as by the objectivity of the analytical nature of its perceptions.

In this official report we read the following, terse catalogue of the events during the destructive night of the pogrom. “The execution of the plan [for the pogrom] reveals two basic characteristics: (1) A well-effected and harmonized time schedule of actions, and (2) effective coordination. “The time schedule of events unfolds, generally, as follows: “1:30 p.m., announcement on the radio of the bomb in the house of Ataturk in Thessaloniki. “4:00 p.m., a special supplement of the newspaper Istanbul Express circulates, publishing this ‘news’ and featuring an artificially altered photograph of the purported destruction of the house [of Ataturk]. “4:30 p.m., groups of young people roam about the main streets of Pera, writing on the walls insulting slogans against the Greeks. “5:30 p.m., the first groups of demonstrators gather in Taxim Square. “6:00 p.m., the gathering in Taxim Square listens to various speakers who are making inflammatory speeches against the Greeks and Greece. “6:30 p.m., the assembly is transformed into a demonstration, in which one group reaches the General Consulate of Greece but is dispersed by the immediate appearance of police forces, who close off all access to the consulate. “7:00 p.m., there commences the smashing of display windows and iron doors of the Greek shops on Taxim Square and of the shops on Pera Street.

Almost simultaneously, acts of violence begin to be manifested in the remaining neighborhoods and suburbs, so that, within two hours, the attack on and destruction of Greek property has become general and widespread through the enormous territorial triangle formed by the east tip of the Bosphoros-Sariyar and Yeni Mahalle— as far as the Propontis- St. Stephan and the Isles. “2:00 a.m., September 7, or just a little thereafter, martial law is declared and the first military contingents make their appearance. After this, the situation becomes quiet.” The consular report continues: “The timing and coordination of the demonstration (riots) acquire even greater significance inasmuch as they were combined with a strategy of burning and destruction.

One can distinguish, more or less, three waves of attackers:

“1. The first wave has as its goal to break down the doors and display windows (prosthekes) of the stores and the iron doors of the (Greek) houses, thus to prepare the way for the actions of the second wave. “

2. The second wave was to pillage and carry off all that was capable of transport. “

3. The third wave had as its task the complete destruction of (all property) that remained. “However, the organizers of the events had accomplished other noteworthy deeds, for instance: “a) In the center of the city, with very few exceptions, private houses were not looted. Looting of the houses was limited to the neighborhoods and the suburbs. “B) Blood was not shed, not because the rioters were unable or did not want to shed it, but because they were not permitted to proceed to violence against the people.” (In effect, recent studies showed that some 28 Greeks were murdered, and original reports reveal extensive rape of women -Speros Vryonis, Jr.) “c) The attack groups were fully equipped with the necessary instruments: crow bars, sledge hammers, iron rods, even with acetylene blow torches for breaking safes open. “d) The equipping of the attackers with these tools obviously took place following a prearranged plan via trucks stationed in convenient sites throughout the city...

It is reported that vehicles belonging to the municipality (of Istanbul) were also seen carrying out these functions.” From these observations, the experienced Greek diplomat drew the following conclusions in his report: “That which is certain, and which is addressed in the following chapter (of the report), is that there was a long period of methodic preparation so as to achieve such a perfect organization of the riots. Characteristic of this fact are the very statements and confessions of the Prime Minister Adnan Menderes to the Patriarchal committee, which visited him after the riots, to the effect that these riots had been started and planned over a five-year period.”

It is significant to examine the time schedule of the events attendant upon the pogrom so as to see how, actually, the Hellenism of Constantinople was physically destroyed between 7:00 p.m., September 6, when the Turkish mobs began to smash the doors and windows of thousands of shops and houses, churches, schools, Greek newspaper establishments and then to loot the goods and possessions of the Greeks, and, finally, to destroy the physical establishments themselves, often with fire, until 2:00 a.m., September 7, when the Turkish authorities established martial law in the city. In other words, this historic Greek community which had lived and created in the city on the Bosphoros from its first foundation in 668 B.C. up to 1955, for some 2,623 years (some 104 generations), suffered a complete and destructive catastrophe in only seven hours.

No one moved even so much as one finger to save this most historic Greek diasporic community, neither Greek nor Christian, nor so-called civilized man or woman, and certainly not the Turkish government or the Turkish nation. Let us now leave this Greek consular report on the pogrom lest it be thought that I am relying on a Greek.
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A resolution marking the anniversary of the anti-Greek pogrom in Turkey, on September 6, 1955. (Introduced in Senate):


SRES 160 IS

104th CONGRESS

1st Session

S. RES. 160

IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES

August 7 (legislative day, JULY 10), 1995

Mr. D'AMATO submitted the following resolution; which was referred to the Committee on the Judiciary

RESOLUTION

A resolution marking the anniversary of the anti-Greek pogrom in Turkey, on September 6, 1955.

Whereas, in September 1955, there existed a Greek minority population of 100,000 in Istanbul, Turkey;

Whereas, on the night of September 6-7, 1955, a pogrom against the Greek community began in Istanbul;

Whereas anti-Greek rioters attacked, pillaged, gutted and destroyed more than 2,000 Greek homes, 4,200 Greek shops and stores, 73 Greek Orthodox churches, 52 Greek schools, eight Greek cemeteries, all three major Greek newspaper plants, and dozens of Greek factories, hotels, restaurants, and warehouses in Istanbul;

Whereas 15 Greeks were killed in the pogrom or died subsequently, and 32 were seriously injured;

Whereas as many as 200 women were raped by rioters;

Whereas the United States Consul General in Istanbul reported that police stood idly by or cheered on the rioting mobs;

Whereas the State Department received confirmation of `elaborate advanced planning for widespread destruction of the property of the indigenous Greek community,' involving careful preparations by many individuals;

Whereas American journalist Frederick Sondern, Jr., writing at the time for Readers Digest, described the events of that night as `. . . one of the wildest eruptions of mob fury and hysteria in modern times . . .';

Whereas homes of Greek officers stationed at NATO headquarters in the Turkish city of Izmir were also attacked and destroyed;

Whereas rioters attacked and burned down the Greek Consulate in Izmir and the Greek Pavilion at the Izmir International festival;

Whereas Turkish authorities failed at the time to convict a single rioter, out of thousands, for any crime committed during the pogrom;

Whereas five years later, after a military coup in Turkey, the former Prime Minister and acting Foreign Minister at the time of the pogrom were charged with, and convicted of, numerous criminal actions, including the instigation of the anti-Greek riots;

Whereas the pogrom marked the beginning of the end of the Greek community's presence in Istanbul, numbering about 2,000 in 1995; and

Whereas September 6, 1995 will mark the 40th Anniversary of the pogrom: Now, therefore, be it

Resolved, That it is the sense of the Senate that the President should--

(1) take all appropriate steps to observe and commemorate the loss of life and property, and the numerous injuries and offenses, which took place during the pogrom by proclaiming September 6, 1995 as a day of remembrance for the victims of these attacks; and

(2) urge all Americans to honor the victims of the pogrom in the appropriate manner.

Appendix B

A survey of the damage inflicted on public establishments of the Greek Community of Istanbul during the rioting on the night of September 6-7 shows that the destruction caused has been extremely widespread. In fact, only a very small percentage of community property appears to have escaped molestation. Although there are as yet no figures available assessing the damage sustained, the number of establishments attacked and the nature of the destruction caused in the course of the night under reference convey a clear picture of the scope of the devastation. In most cases the assault on these establishments involved a thorough wrecking of installations, furniture, equipment, desecration of holy shrines and relics, and looting. In certain instances serious damage was inflicted on the buildings themselves by fire.

Information received from the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate shows that of the 95 houses of worship listed on the books of the Archbishopric of Istanbul 61 were either completely or partially damaged. Eight of them became the victims of flames. The religious edifices thus affected are identified as follows:

1. Aghia Triada, Taksim--Wrecked, pillaged and destroyed by fire.
2. St. Constantin, Kalyoncu Kulluk--Wrecked, pillaged and destroyed by fire.
3. Motamorphosia, Cemetery of Sisli--Wrecked and pillaged.
4. Sotiros Christou, Galata--Wrecked and pillaged.
5. Saint Nicolas, Galata--Wrecked and pillaged.
6. Saint Jean, Galata--Wrecked and pillaged.
7. Saint Dimitri, Kurtulus--Wrecked and pillaged.
8. Saint Athanase, Kurtulus--Wrecked and pillaged.
9. Saint Elephtere, Kurtulus--Wrecked and pillaged.
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10. Ivanghelistrias, Kurtulus--Wrecked and pillaged.
11. Ghenethlion tis Theotocou, Besiktas--Wrecked and pillaged.
12. Saint Phocas, Ortako˙AE4y--Wrecked and pillaged.
13. Saint Dimitri, Kurucesme--Wrecked and pillaged.
14. Ton Taxiarchon, together with residence of Bishop, Arnavutko˙AE4y--Wrecked and destroyed by fire.
15. Saint Haralambos, Bebek--Wrecked and pillaged.
16. Evanghelismos tis Theotokou, Boyaciko˙AE4y--Wrecked and pillaged.
17. Taxiarchon, Istinye--Wrecked and pillaged.
18. Saint Nicolas, Yeniko˙AE4y--Wrecked and pillaged.
19. Saint Paraskevi, Tarabya and residence of Bishop--Wrecked and destroyed by fire.
20. Saint Paraskevi, Bu˙AE4yu˙AE4kdere--Wrecked and pillaged.
21. Saint Jean, Yeni Mahalle--Wrecked and pillaged.
22. Saint Constantin, Pasabagc˙AE9o--Wrecked and pillaged.
23. Genethlion tis Theotocou, Kandilli--Wrecked and pillaged.
24. Saint George, C˙AE9angelko˙AE4y--Wrecked and pillaged.
25. Prophe Ilia, U˙AE4aku˙AE4dar--Wrecked and pillaged.
26. Agia Triada, with residence of Bishop--Kadiko˙AE4y--Wrecked, pillaged and destroyed by fire.
27. Saint Georges, Kadiko˙AE4y--Wrecked and pillaged.
28. St. Jean Chrysostome, Kadiko˙AE4y--Wrecked and pillaged.
29. Saint Ignace, Kadiko˙AE4y--Wrecked and pillaged.
30. Saint Dimitri, Bu˙AE4yu˙AE4kada--Wrecked and pillaged.
31. Dormition of the Virgin, Bu˙AE4yu˙AE4kada--Wrecked and pillaged.
32. Metamorphosis tou Christou, Bu˙AE4yu˙AE4kada--Wrecked and pillaged.
33. Saint Georges, monastery, Heybeliada--Wrecked and pillaged.
34. Saint Spiridon, monastery, Heybeliada--Wrecked and pillaged.
35. Zoodochos Pighi, Balikli--Wrecked and destroyed by fire.
36. Genethlion tis Theotocou, Beligradiou, Yedikule--Wrecked and pillaged.
37. Saint Constantin, Samatya--Wrecked and pillaged.
38. Saint Paraskevi, Samatya--Wrecked and pillaged.
39. Saint Georges, Samatya--Wrecked and pillaged.
40. Saint Minas, Samatya--Wrecked and pillaged.
41. Dormition of the Vergin, Exi Harmara--Wrecked and pillaged.
42. Saint Theodore, Langa--Wrecked and pillaged.
43. Saint Elpida, Kumigapi--Wrecked and pillaged.
44. Saint Kiriaki, Kumigapi--Wrecked and pillaged.
45. Saint Nicolas, Topkapu--Wrecked and pillaged.
46. Saint Georges, Edirnekapu--Wrecked and pillaged.
47. Dormition of the Virgin, Edirnekapu--Wrecked and pillaged.
48. Another Dormition of the Virgin, Edirnekapu--Wrecked and pillaged.
49. Taxiarchon, Balat--Wrecked and pillaged.
50. Panaghia tis Soudas, Egrikapu--Wrecked and pillaged.
51. Dormition of the Virgin, Blacherne, Ayvansqray--Wrecked and pillaged.
52. Saint Dimitri, Xiloportis--Damaged.
53. Dormition of the Virgin, Valinu--Damaged.
54. Saint Jean Prodrome, Valinu, monastery--Wrecked.
55. Saint Georges Potira--Wrecked.
56. Vierge Houchliotisoa, Phanar--Wrecked and pillaged.
57. Saint Nicolas, Cibali--Wrecked and pillaged.
58. Saint Haralambos, Chapel, Cibali--Wrecked and pillaged.
59. Dormition of the Virgin, Vefa--Wrecked and pillaged.
60. Saint Paraskevi, Hasko˙AE4y--Wrecked and pillaged.
61. Aghici Therapon--Damaged.
In addition to the above religious establishments the following properties belonging to the Monastery of St. Sinai, said to contain irreplaceable objects of art of Byzantine origin and religious relics of great value, apparently, also suffered serious destruction and pillage:
1. Monastery of St. Georges ti Krimnou, Heybeli Ada.
2. Monastery of St. Georges, Fener.
3. Monastery of St. Georges, Tenikoy.

Reports show that the dependencies of the religious edifices hit were also not spared and that very serious damage was inflicted on presbyteries and well-appointed community meeting quarters, libraries, dispensaries attached to these establishments.

Among the Greek churches heavily attacked also figures the church of the Greek Catholic Uniate at Hamal Basi, Bayoglu. Report has it that the presbytery of the said church and the congregational school attached thereto were also severely damaged. As a matter of fact three other Catholic churches having no connection whatever with the Greek community, are reported to have also suffered serious damage during the rioting.

Reports on hand indicate that the rioting crowd hit with particular frenzy at two important Greek Orthodox community centers; the central cemetery at Sisli and the cemetery of the Patriarchs at Balikil. The former sustained particularly extensive destruction. Crosses and statues were knocked down, sepulchers and vaults opened and the remains of the dead removed and dispersed. At Balikli, the sarcophaguses of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchs were desecrated.

As for the Greek Orthodox clergy itself, considering the scale and severity of the acts of violence recorded, it appears that only a relatively few were exposed to the fury of rioters. According to information given by the Patriarchate only one aged Orthodox priest, monk Chrysanthos of Balikli, is believed to have been killed during the rioting. Since his body has not been recovered he is listed as missing. It is supposed that he perished during the burning of his church. The principal dignitaries of the Orthodox church who were maltreated during the disturbances and made to suffer indignities are reported to be the following:

The Metropolitan of New Cesarea, Weaudor.
The Metropolitan of Troy, Bogacikey.
The Metropolitan of Derkos, Therapia.
The Metropolitan of Chalchida, Kadikoy.
Bishop Panphilion, Balikli.
Bishop Ilioupolios, Arnarutkoy.
The Archdeacon of the Patriarchate, Yenikoy.

Extensive damage also seems to have been suffered by the educational establishments of the Greek community. At least 36 of the 48 schools of the community are reported to have been more or less seriously damaged. The principal victims are the Zappeion Girls' College at Taksim and the Megali Scholi Boys' College of Phanar, both princes of the community, the Theological School at Heybeli, and the high schools at Haskoy, Edirne Kapu, Bakirkoy, Gelata, Taksim and Arnavutkoy. The elaborate dispensary of the Takrim High School and several public soup kitchens operated in conjunction with these educational institutions were also demolished.

A list of the schools hit by the rioters is given below:

1. The Greek Catholic School at Hamal Basi.
2. The Zappeion Girls' College, Taksim.
3. The Megali Scholi Boys College, Phanar.
4. The School of Haskoy.
5. The School of Evanghelistria.
6. The School of Gelata.
7. The School of Ortakoy.
8. The School of St. Constaintin, Beyoglu.
9. The School of Bakirkoy.
10. The School of Boyacikoy.
11. The School of Kurtulus.
12. The School of Yenikoy.
13. The School of Ferikoy.
14. The Theological School of Heybeli Ada.
15. The School at Nane Street.
16. The School of Aynali Cesme.
17. The School of Arnavutkoy.
18. The School of Aghia Triada, Taksim.
19. The School of Bebsk.
20. The School of Besiktas.
21. The School of Kandilli.
22. The School of Cengelkby.
23. The School of Kuzgunouk.
24. The School of Uskudar (Teni Mahole).
25. The School of Xakikoy (Yeldegirmen).
26. The School of Cafer Aga.
27. The School of Balat.
28. The School of Lonca.
29. The School of Edirne Kapu.
30. The School of Samatya.
31. The School of Longa.
32. The School of Buyakdere.
33. The School of Tarabya.
34. The School of Buyuk Ada.
35. The School of Ioakimeion Parthenagogheion.
36. The School of Kentrikon Parthenagogheion.

Efforts are now being made to immediately repair some of the damage to make possible opening of these schools by the end of this month. To that effect a preliminary aid of TL 110,000 has been allocated to the Community by the Turkish authorities. Special appropriations are also expected for the repair of damaged religious institutions and cemeteries since, neither the community itself nor the Patriarchate is in a position to provide adequate funds for the purpose. As the allocation of such funds will require legislative action, an emergency relief of TL 200,000 is announced for urgent repair work.

Though not specifically community property, it might be appropriate to consider in the present report also the damage sustained by the Greek language press of Istanbul. All three principal dailies, the APOYEVMATINI, the TACHYDROMOS and the EMBROS suffered heavy losses. The first two had both their offices and printing establishments completely wrecked. In the case of the EMBROS only its offices were destroyed since it had no printing press of its own. The APOYEVMATINI (circulation 10,000), the most heavily hit, managed to resume publication two weeks after the rioting. Its losses alone are estimated at half a million lirae. The TACHYDROMOS (circulation 5,000) has as yet not been able to recuperate from the blow but is scheduled to appear in the near future. The EMBROS (circulation 7,000) reappeared a few days after the disturbances. The weekly OKROIDS (circulation 5,000) managed to continue publication without interruption though its offices were also heavily wrecked. Like the EMBROS it has no printing press of its own.

As pointed out in the opening paragraphs of this report a monetary assessment of the damage caused to Greek Community property in the course of the September 6 riot has as yet not been attempted. Very general estimates on the part of community and church leaders would indicate that it goes into millions of Turkish liras. The Department will be informed as soon as a substantive estimate is available.
For the Counsul General.
Betty Carp,
Assistant Attache.

Appendix C:

Documented Deaths in 1955 Riots

Name Place Manner of death/source 1

[Priest] Chrysanthos Mantas Baloukli Doused with gasoline and burned to death

[Bishop] Gerasimos of Pamphilus Baloukli [b]Tortured, beaten, comotose died.

[Bishop] Gennadios Arabatzoglou. 80 Yeniko˙AE4y Beaten, died of injuries.

[Priest] Name unknown Edirenkapi Diseappeared

[Priest] Name unknown Chalke Found dead

[Church caretaker] Erpapazoglou Pasa Bahc˙AE9i Was killed inside church which was dynamited.

[Caretaker] Name unknown Anadoluhisar Was killed at shrine there: Cumhuriyet, 7.IX.55.

Abraham Anavas 65 `Moton' Store Was killed in store: Cumhuriyet, 8.IX.55.

Olga Kimiades 77 Beaten, died of heart attack:Huriyet, 8.IX.55.

Thanassis Misiroglou Hatzopoulos Passage Was killed at his store: Cumhuriyet, 8.IX.55.
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TURKISH POGROM AGAINST THE GREEK POPULATION OF CONSTANTINOPLE 6-7 SEPTEMBER 1955

“Special Edition to commemorate the Pogrom of September 1955”

“Ta Septemvriana”

by Costa Vertzayias 5 September 2005

“The events of September” or "Septemvriana" as they are known to the ethnic Greek inhabitants of Constantinople (Istanbul) to describe the pogrom that took place in that city fifty years ago on the 6-7 September 1955. On that horrific night, at least as intense as the Kristallnacht of 1938 in NAZI Germany, a Turkish Government orchestrated pogrom set out to physically destroy everything Greek in Constantinople. Wave after wave of frenzied mobs systematically destroyed:

Destruction of Greek property:
4,500 Greek homes,
3,500 shops and businesses,
90 churches and monasteries,
36 schools and
3 cemeteries.

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Greek Deaths:
Two priests were burnt alive,
14 other Greeks killed,
hundreds of Greek women raped and
many thousands of Greeks beaten.

The dead were not spared –
corpses were disinterred and
knifed and others defecated upon.

The graves of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchs were defiled.

The churches, in particular, suffered massive destruction, 70 being utterly destroyed and irreplaceable relics of enormous value reduced to rubble. However, the destruction of churches could not alone satisfy the fanaticised and frenzied mobs.

The American Ambassador spoke about “the disgusting and beastly manner in which religious sanctuaries were desecrated.”

Desecration:The desecration involved
defecation on the altars,
urination in the communion cups,
the piercing and removing of the eyes of Christ from all icons,
placing of priests’ sacred clothes on donkeys and
the use of looted metallic church implements on garbage collectors.

The World Council of Churches at that time estimated the damage to churches alone exceeded $150 million dollars.

It should be noted that the Turkish authorities transported large groups of people in trains and military vehicles from Anatolia to Constantinople.

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The attacks by the mob began at 5.50pm on 6th September and ended at 2am on 7 September with the imposition of martial law.

However, during this 8 hours of frenzy the police assisted and guided the mobs in their relentless path of destruction in a very well organised pogrom.

The 100,000 rioters came well equipped with lists of Greek addresses to target scattered through 45 square kilometres; Armenian and Jewish property was also attacked in the frenzy.

According to Spiros Vryonis, who has recently published the definitive work on the subject – “The Mechanism of Catastrophe” – there were three systematic waves of destroyers. “

The first wave destroyed metal doors and barriers to all churches, house and businesses. They smashed all obstacles to entry.

The second wave commenced pilfering and the pillaging. They came with trucks so as to systematically loot and carry off their booty. But the basic job of the second wave was to begin the destruction of the houses, the apartments, the church, the stores and then to move on, just as the first wave moved on very quickly.

The third came some time later to finish off the marauding.” The pilfering or destruction of Greek businesses was so great that it produced a food shortage in Constantinople. The price of eggs rose 6 times and as most bakeries were utterly destroyed people had to wait in line for a piece of bread. People had nothing to eat and nowhere to sleep. (Houses were looted, and then destroyed by pouring gasoline).

Vryonis notes that the 100,000 rioters (students, labour unionists and peasants) came well equipped with pickaxes, shovels, wooden timbers to serve as battering rams, acetylene torches, gasoline, dynamite and large trucks full of stones. How could a spontaneous eruption occur when security people, secret police, municipal police, and the armed services were everywhere?

This was Turkey’s final solution just on 500 years after the conquest of the city that had been Byzantium’s capital for 1100 years. The Ottoman empire had been a multinational one until its defeat in World War I. The Young Turks, however, developed a fervent nationalism of “Turkey for the Turks” and its implementation began with the Armenian and Pontian genocides in 1915. After the Greek defeat in the Greco-Turkish War of 1919-1922, the Treaty of Lausanne (1923) provided for a massive exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey. The Greeks of Constantinople, Imbros and Tenedos (two islands near the Dardanelles) and the Moslems on the Greek side of the border with Turkey in Thrace were excepted from this exchange.

According to Turkish statistics in 1924 the Greek population of Constantinople amounted to 279,788 and there was a Greek population of 8,200 on the islands of Imbros and Tenedos. Imbros, in fact, had no Turkish inhabitants at all. The Moslems of Western Thrace (not ethnically homogeneous being made up of Turks, Pomaks [Bulgarian speaking Thracians] and Gypsies) numbered 86,793 persons. The Greek population today in Constantinople numbers 2000, in Imbros 250 and in Tenedos 50 whilst the Moslem population in Greece numbers 120,000. Both populations were to be protected by stringent conditions in the Treaty of Lausanne. Greece respected and obeyed the Treaty and as a result the Moslems have increased in numbers and the Greek state maintains their mosques and schools. What has Turkey done? From day one it has passed laws in blatant disregard of the Treaty of Lausanne, orchestrated the 1955 pogrom which led to the massive emigration of ethnic Greeks from Turkey and is now systematically confiscating the property owned by the Ecumenical Patriarchate – the last vestige of 1700 years presence of the seat of the Greek Orthodox Church.

For the record it should be stated that Turkey never implemented Article 14 of the Treaty of Lausanne which provided that the islands of Imbros and Tenedos were to enjoy a special administration composed of local elements. Indeed, in 1927 by law 1151 the Greek schools on Imbros and Tenedos were abolished. In 1964 the Greek inhabitants of Imbros were notified that they must “voluntarily” sell their land to the Turkish State otherwise it would be expropriated. The authorities then set up an open prison on the island forcing the majority of the Greek inhabitants to emigrate. In 1967 an Imbros special court ordered the Greeks to return to the Turkish State the pittances they had received for the confiscation of their land.

In 1934 Law 2596 forbade Greek clergymen to wear clerical attire outside the Church.

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In 1937 Moslem deputy directors were appointed to the Greek schools. Since then regulations have been adopted prohibiting any reference to modern Greek history or culture and the removal of all notices in the Greek language in the schools. No funds whatsoever are provided in the Turkish budget for minority education.

In 1941 whilst Greece was fighting Nazism Turkey mobilised all Greeks between 18 and 45 years of age and deported them to special camps from which many never returned.

In 1942 the “Varlik Vergisi” law imposed a wealth tax on property. The provisions of the law were enforced with exceptional zeal only against the non-Moslem minorities at confiscatory rates. Eg Greeks were taxed at 156 percent of annual income and Moslem Turks at 4.96 percent. The Varlik effectively deprived the community of its wealth with massive numbers of property and businesses being transferred to Moslem hands.

In 1949 all Greek religious, charitable and community foundations were stripped of their autonomy and placed under the supervision of the General Directorate for Religious Property (Vakuf).

In 1963 the Turkish Council of State determined that non-moslem foundations could not acquire real estate in excess of that belonging to them in 1926.

In 1964 the Turkish Authorities closed the Patriarchal printing house and forbade the further printing of the two church religious journals. By secret decision (6/3801) taken by the Turkish Ministerial Council on 2/11/64 all real property belonging to Greeks was attached and Greeks were barred from legal transactions involving the transfer of property. In the same year the operation of the Greek Orphanage at Pringipos was prohibited and the building forcibly taken over by the Turkish Authorities, literally throwing 117 boys and 46 girls in the street. The building in now the subject of litigation between the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the Turkish State. In the same year 15,000 Greeks were deported on a few hours notice with all their possessions confiscated except one suitcase of clothing. (The recent film a “Touch of Spice” covers this event).

In 1967 (Law 903/67) imposed an inspection tax of 5% on the income of minority foundations. This law also prohibited the establishment of new minority foundations and the repair or restoration of real estate belonging to minority foundations.

In 1970 the Ministry of Education prohibited prayers in minority schools. In the same year a new property tax of 6% was imposed on the real estate of minority foundations.

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In 1971, the Theological School of Halki (Orthodoxy’s most eminent seminary) was closed thereby depriving the Patriarchate of the ability to educate its clergy and future successors to the Patriarchal Throne. Despite calls from the US, EU and Australia Turkey refuses to re-open the College.

In 1983 Christian religious and charitable property was excepted from Law 2912/83. This law cancelled old lease agreements and permitted property owners to charge rents at current market values. By preventing Christians from benefiting from this law, the Turkish Authorities ensured their financial strangulation.

There has not been a year in which a Greek Church has not been expropriated or demolished to build new roads or a cemetery not desecrated or a church damaged or burned or a school closed or demolished or property expropriated without compensation; or when compensation has been ordered the funds blocked. Not one Greek has been employed in the public service in the last 50 years.

It is apparent from this review that there has been a systematic policy on the part of Turkey to eliminate every trace of the Greek and Christian ( the Armenians & other Christians are also subject to the discriminatory laws) presence from Turkey – to complete what the Young Turks and Kemal conceptualised – a Turkey for the Turks only. Not one Christian (whether Greek or Armenian) is to remain, not one Christian Church is to operate (they will still be opened for the tourist revenue), no property of any kind will remain in Christian hands. Despite pressure from the EU Turkey is in the final throes of confiscating Christian property and completing its master plan.

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Seen in the above context the Septemvriana did not erupt so suddenly and violently in order to destroy an entire community. Cyprus, was merely the ostensible cause, the events in Cyprus provided the pretext to fanaticise the mobs. It was the excuse that Turkey was waiting for just as the coup in 1974 was the excuse Turkey needed to invade Cyprus to implement its long awaited plan. The Greek Cypriots campaign against Britain in 1955 was used to turn the Turkish public against the Greeks of Constantinople and thus to eliminate them forever.

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At the trial of Prime Minister Menderes in 1960 it was revealed that he and Foreign Minister Fatin Rustu planned and mapped out the programme of terror.

Fifty years later we remember with great sadness the heinous events of 6-7 September 1955 which has led to the almost extinction of the Greek presence in Constantinople. No words can convey the reign of terror that the Greeks lived through.

The Septemvriana are yet another black page in Turkish history, along with the genocides against the Armenians, Pontians and Assyrians for which Turkey has never been held accountable. Sadly, Turkey’s complete disregard of international law and contempt for universally accepted human values has been condoned by the West for geopolitical reasons.

Even sadder, the situation in Cyprus is worse now than in 1955. However, the great irony may be that Cyprus could be the sting in the scorpion’s tail for Turkey. Exactly fifty years after the Septemvriana it may be Cyprus that will block Turkey’s road to Europe – divine retribution or nemesis?
Costa Vertzayias 5 September 2005
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post 02/14/06 06:13 PM
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lady chase is humiliating Muslim Turks as she always does . She is good @ provoking people againist Muslim people and having an objective (!) view on the evidences . You are going too far ; anyway .
Those evidences occured in 50's which is completely a provokation , nothing more . Not only Christian minority's properties are looted .
Those poor people (mostly) have looted many Turkish merchants .

Such that a funny evidence occured in those nervous days ;
QUOTE
\" The looter group has seen beyond Pera . They were running furiously . Whole of the merchants were in fear . Group was incited by a provoker and group almost looted many shops !!!
Such that , they did not neglected to loot and rob the Turkish merchants . This group has gone too far and a Turkish merchant has shown his penis and shouted with fear \" I AM A MUSLIM TURK ! STOP ! I AM A MUSLIM TURK ! \" . \"
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chase
post 02/27/06 11:43 AM
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QUOTE
lady chase is humiliating Muslim Turks


The Turks need no help from me - they continue to do a great job of humiliating themselves - all on their own.
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Mordoth
post 02/27/06 12:34 PM
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and you are humiliating yourself now by deleting your past . You forget tens of millions of Cherokee indian were sentenced to genocide in their motherlands . I am very furious on you indian and negro origined people of US .
You are poisoning yourself by biased sites . I understand your religious sensations , yer sensations can be very tender . Greeks have done much more loot and massacre before .
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chase
post 02/27/06 10:48 PM
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QUOTE(Mordoth)
and you are humiliating yourself now by deleting your past . You forget tens of millions of Cherokee indian were sentenced to genocide in their motherlands . I am very furious on you indian and negro origined people of US .
You are poisoning yourself by biased sites . I understand your religious sensations , yer sensations can be very tender . Greeks have done much more loot and massacre before .


QUOTE
You forget tens of millions of Cherokee indian were sentenced to genocide in their motherlands


You do have all the Turkey talking points. I guess you all have the same brainwashed curriculum but it does make you look ignorant particularly from a stolen country who ethnically cleansed all but a few thousand of their indigents.

Now source what you just quoted as there wasn't even close in "tens of millions" and that's with all the tribes combined! How come we still have millions of Indians here while Turkey has only a few thousand Greeks left?

Speaking of Indians - 80 million murdered by Islam!
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